The VegPlate was created by Luciana Baroni, M.D., specialist in Neurology and Geriatrics, with a Master's degree in Nutrition and Dietetics, and founder and president of Scientific Society of Vegetarian Nutrition-SSNV. A scholar of vegetarian nutrition and its health implications, she is the author of articles and books relating to health, nutrition and lifestyle.
For further insights the reader is invited to refer to the book "Il PiattoVeg, la nuova dieta vegetariana degli italiani", by Dr. Luciana Baroni, Edizioni Sonda 2015.


Pila di libri

Below are the scientific sources used to compile the recommendations of PiattoVeg. The various articles in the international scientific literature herein can mostly find with a search on PubMed or simply by placing the reference into a search engine.

AAP (1977), American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Nutrition. Nutritional aspects of vegetarianism, health foods, and fad diets. Pediatrics 59(3):460-4.

AAP (2012), American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy Statement. Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics. 129(3):e827-41. (accesso 27.04.2014)

ACN (2007), Arbor Clinical Nutrition Updates 2007, "Vegetarianism and bone health", Issue 282, Sept. 2007.

ADA (1988), American Dietetic Association, Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets, "J Am Diet Assoc", 88(3):351.

ADA (2003), American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada, Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets, "J Am Diet Assoc", 103(6):748-765.

ADA (2009), American Dietetic Association (Craig W.J. e Mangels A.R.) (2009), Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets, "J Am Diet Assoc", 109(7):1.266-1.282. Consultabile in italiano: Posizione dell'American Dietetic Association, Diete Vegetariane (

Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Remley DT (1999). Breast-feeding and cognitive development: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(4):525-35. ANHMRC (2013), Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Dietary Guidelines 2013 (

Appel L.J. (1999), Nonpharmacologic therapies that reduce blood pressure: a fresh perspective, "Clin Cardiol", 22 (7 Suppl):III 1-5.

Appleby P., Roddam A., Allen N. e Key T. (2007), Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in epic-Oxford, "Eur J Clin Nutr", 61(12):1.400-1.406.

Appleby P.N., Allen N.E. e Key T.J. (2011), Diet, vegetarianism, and cataract risk, "Am J Clin Nutr", 93(5):1.128-1.135.

Appleby P.N., Davey G.K. e Key T.J. (2002), Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in epic-Oxford, "Public Health Nutr", 5(5):645-654.

Barnard N.D., Cohen J., Jenkins D.J., Turner-McGrievy G., Gloede L., Green A. e Ferdowsian H. (2009), A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial, "Am J Clin Nutr", 89(5):1.588S-1.596S.

Barnard N.D., Cohen J., Jenkins D.J., Turner-McGrievy G., Gloede L., Jaster B., Seidl K., Green A.A. e Talpers S. (2006), A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes, "Diabetes Care", 29(8):1.777-1.783.

Barnard N.D., Scialli A.R., Turner-McGrievy G., Lanou A.J. e Glass J. (2005), The effects of a low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity, "Am J Med", 118(9):991-997.

Baroni L. (2010), VegPyramid: a proposal for a Vegetarian Food Guide for Italian people, "Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism", 3(1):71-80.

Baroni L. (2012), VegPyramid, la dieta vegetariana degli italiani, Sonda, Casale Monferrato (al) 20125.

Baroni L. (2014), Come orientarsi nelle varie diete vegetariane, in: Aggiornamenti in Nutrizione Clinica, Volume 22, Gentile Ed., ©Mattioli 1885, Fidenza (Italia), 215-227.

Baroni L. (2015), Vegetarianism In Food-Based Dietary Guidelines, "Int J Nutr", 1 volume 2, 49-74.

Baroni L., Berati M., Candilera M. e Tettamanti M. (2014), Total Environmental Impact of Three Main Dietary Patterns in Relation to the Content of Animal and Plant Food, "Foods" 3, 443-460,

Baroni L., Cenci L., Tettamanti M. e Berati M (2007), Evaluating the environmental impact of various dietary patterns combined with different food production systems, "Eur J Clin Nutr", 61(2):279-286.

Baroni L., Fasan I., Fraioli R. (2015), Il PiattoVeg_Mamy, Sonda, Casale Monferrato (AL), 1a ed 2015.

Baroni, L (2012). VegPyramid, la dieta vegetariana degli italiani. Edizioni Sonda, Casale Monferrato (AL), 5a ed, 2012.

Baroni, L. (2015) Il PiattoVeg. Edizioni Sonda, Casale Monferrato (AL), 1a ed, 2015.

Barr S.I., Prior J.C., Janelle K.C. e Lentle B.C. (1998), Spinal bone mineral density in premenopausal vegetarian and nonvegetarian women: cross-sectional and prospective comparisons, "J Am Diet Assoc", 98(7):760-765.

Bartolozzi G, Guglielmi M (2008). Pediatria: principi e pratica clinica. 3^ ed, Elsevier-Masson, Torino.

BCFN, Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition (2014), Doppia piramide 2014. Stili alimentari e impatto ambientale (

Berkow S.E. e Barnard N.D. (2005), Blood pressure regulation and vegetarian diets, "Nutr Rev", 63(1):1-8.

Berry E.M., Dernini S., Burlingame B., Meybeck A. e Conforti P. (2015), Food security and sustainability: can one exist without the other?, "Public Health Nutr", 16:1-10.

Bettinelli ME, Dozzelli A, Patruno A, Tomaselli A (2007). Latte materno: nutre il bambino, la mente, il cuore. ASL Milano.

Beyerlein A, Hadders-Algra M, Kennedy K, Fewtrell M, Singhal A, Rosenfeld E, Lucas A, Bouwstra H, Koletzko B, von Kries R (2010). Infant formula supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids has no effect on Bayley developmental scores at 18 months of age--IPD meta-analysis of 4 large clinical trials. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 50(1):79-84.

Bhatia J, Greer F (2008). American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Use of soy protein-based formulas in infant feeding. Pediatrics. 121(5):1062-8. Review.

Black W.A.P. e Woodward F.N. (1957), The value of seaweeds in animal feedingstuffs as a source of minerals, trace elements, and vitamins, "Empire J Exp Agric", 25:51-59.

Bor M.V., von Castel-Roberts K.M., Kauwell G.P., Stabler S.P., Allen R.H., Maneval D.R., Bailey L.B. e Nexo E. (2010), Daily intake of 4 to 7 microg dietary vitamin B-12 is associated with steady concentrations of vitamin B-12-related biomarkers in a healthy young population, "Am J Clin Nutr", 91(3):571-577.

Bradbury K.E., Crowe F.L., Appleby P.N., Schmidt J.A., Travis R.C. e Key T.J. (2014), Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans, "Eur J Clin Nutr", 68(2):178-183.

Brenna J.T., Salem N. Jr, Sinclair A.J. e Cunnane S.C. (2009), International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, issfal, Alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans, "Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids", 80(2-3):85-91.

Butler M.R. (1931). Comparison of the chemical composition of some marine algae. Plant Physiology, 6(2): 295-305.

Cheng G, Buyken AE, Shi L, Karaolis-Danckert N, Kroke A, Wudy SA, Degen GH, Remer T (2012). Beyond overweight: nutrition as an important lifestyle factor influencing timing of puberty. Nutr Rev. 70(3):133-52.

Clarke R, Bennett DA, Parish S, Verhoef P, Dötsch-Klerk M, Lathrop M, Xu P, Nordestgaard BG, Holm H, Hopewell JC, Saleheen D, Tanaka T, Anand SS, Chambers JC, Kleber ME, Ouwehand WH, Yamada Y, Elbers C, Peters B, Stewart AF, Reilly MM, Thorand B, Yusuf S, Engert JC, Assimes TL, Kooner J, Danesh J, Watkins H, Samani NJ, Collins R, Peto R (2012); for the MTHFR Studies Collaborative Group. Homocysteine and Coronary Heart Disease: Meta-analysis of MTHFR Case-Control Studies, Avoiding Publication Bias. PLoS Med. 9(2):e1001177.

Cook JD, Reddy MB (2001). Effect of ascorbic acid intake on nonheme-iron absorption from a complete diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:93-98.

Crowe F.L., Appleby P.N., Allen N.E. e Key T.J. (2011), Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (epic): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians, "bmj", 343:d4.131.

Crowe F.L., Appleby P.N., Travis R.C. e Key T.J. (2013), Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the epic-Oxford cohort study, "Am J Clin Nutr", 97(3):597-603.

Dagnelie PC, van Dusseldorp M, van Staveren WA, Hautvast JG (1994). Effects of macrobiotic diets on linear growth in infants and children until 10 years of age. Eur J Clin Nutr. 48 Suppl 1:S103-11; discussion S111-2.

Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA (1994). Macrobiotic nutrition and child health: results of a population-based, mixed-longitudinal cohort study in The Netherlands. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 May;59(5 Suppl):1187S-1196S. b

Davis B. e Melina V. (2014), Becoming Vegan, comprehensive edition, Book Publishing Company, Summertown (Tenessee) 2014.

Delgado-Noguera MF, Calvache JA, Bonfill Cosp X (2010)(. Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to breastfeeding mothers for improving child growth and development. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (12):CD007901. (accesso 27.04.2104).

DGAC (2015), Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (; Part D, Chapter 2: Dietary Patterns, Foods and Nutrients, and Health Outcomes (

Donovan UM, Gibson RS (1996). Dietary intakes of adolescent females consuming vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous diets. J Adolesc Health 18(4):292-300.

EFSA (2009). The use of taurine and D-glucurono-γ-lactone as constituents of the so-called “energy” drinks. 15.01.2009 (accesso 16.12.2011).

EFSA (2010), EFSA sets European dietary reference values for nutrient intakes. 26 March 2010, (accesso 16.10.2011).

EFSA (2010). Parere scientifico sui valori di riferimento per la dieta relativi ai grassi, inclusi gli acidi grassi saturi, polinsaturi, monoinsaturi e trans, e il colesterolo. EFSA Journal 2010; 8(3):1461 [107 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1461; 25 marzo 2010 (accesso 16.10.2011).

EFSA (2010). Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. EFSA Journal 2010; 8(3):1461 [107 pp.]. 25 marzo 2010. (accesso 27.04.2014).

EFSA (2015), Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for cobalamin (vitamin B12); EFSA Journal 13(7):4150

Englert H.S., Diehl H.A. e Greenlaw R.L. (2004), Rationale and design of the Rockford chip, a community-based coronary risk reduction program: results of a pilot phase, "Prev Med", 38(4):432-441.

ESPGHAN COMMITTEE ON NUTRITION (2008): Agostoni C. et al, Complementary Feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition, Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 2008, 46:99-110.

Esselstyn C.B. (2007), Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease, Penguin Group, ny.

Esselstyn C.B. Jr, Gendy G., Doyle J., Golubic M. e Roizen M.F. (2014), A way to reverse CAD?, "J Fam Pract", 63(7):356-364b.

Fachmann W, Souci EW, Kraut H (1994), Die zusammensetzung der lebensmittel – Naehrwerttabellen, Crc Press.

Fanaro S, Marten B, Bagna R, Vigi V, Fabris C, Peña-Quintana L, Argüelles F, Scholz-Ahrens KE, Sawatzki G, Zelenka R, Schrezenmeir J, de Vrese M, Bertino E (2009). Galacto-oligosaccharides are bifidogenic and safe at weaning: a double-blind randomized multicenter study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 48(1):82-8.

FAO (1991), (Food and Agriculture Organization). Protein Quality Evaluation. Report of Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation; FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, n. 51, FAO, Rome.

FAO (2006), (Food and Agriculture Organization). Livestock's Long Shadow, Rome, 2006 (

FAO (2011), (Food and Agriculture Organization). Food Balance Sheets (

FAO/WHO (2003). Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 916. Geneve, 2003.

Fenton T.R., Tough S.C., Lyon A.W., Eliasziw M. e Hanley D.A. (2011), Causal assessment of dietary acid load and bone disease: a systematic review & meta-analysis applying Hill's epidemiologic criteria for causality, "Nutr J", 10:41, doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-41.

Ferdowsian H.R., Barnard N.D., Hoover V.J., Katcher H.I., Levin S.M., Green A.A. e Cohen J.L. (2010), A multicomponent intervention reduces body weight and cardiovascular risk at a geico corporate site, "Am J Health Promot", 24(6):384-387.

Ferrari M, Mistura L, Patterson E, Sjöström M, Díaz LE, Stehle P, Gonzalez-Gross M, Kersting M, Widhalm K, Molnár D, Gottrand F, De Henauw S, Manios Y, Kafatos A, Moreno LA, Leclercq C (2011). Evaluation of iron status in European adolescents through biochemical iron indicators: the HELENA Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 65(3):340-9.

Fomon SJ, Bier OM, Matthews DE et al. (1988) Bioavailability of dietary urea N in breast-fed infant J. Pediatr., 113: 515-2.

Foodwatch (2008), Klimaretter Bio?, 25 agosto 2008 (

Franke AA, Custer LJ (1996). Daidzein and genistein concentrations in human milk after soy consumption. Clin Chem. 42(6 Pt 1):955-64.

Fraser G.E. (1999), Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists, "Am J Clin Nutr", 70(3 Suppl):532S-538S.

Fraser G.E. e Shavlik D.J. (2001), Ten years of life: Is it a matter of choice?, "Arch Intern Med", 161(13):1.645-1.652.

Fraser G.E., Lindsted K.D. e Beeson W.L. (1995), Effect of risk factor values on lifetime risk of and age at first coronary event. The Adventist Health Study, "Am J Epidemiol", 142(7):746-758.

Frattaroli J., Weidner G., Dnistrian A.M., Kemp C., Daubenmier J.J., Marlin R.O., Crutchfield L., Yglecias L., Carroll P.R. e Ornish D. (2008), Clinical events in prostate cancer lifestyle trial: results from two years of follow-up, "Urology", 72(6):1.319-1.323.

Frederiksen B, Kroehl M, Lamb MM, Seifert J, Barriga K, Eisenbarth GS, Rewers M, Norris JM (2013). Infant Exposures and Development of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY). JAMA Pediatr. 167(9):808-815.

FSA (2011), Food Standards Agency, The Eatwell Plate, aggiornamento 2011 (; gestanti e nutrici:; età pediatrica:

Gerstein HC (1994). Cow's milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. A critical overview of the clinical literature. Diabetes Care, 17(1):13-9.

Giovannini M, Riva E, Verduci E (2005). I latti formulati di inizio non sono tutti uguali dal punto di vista nutrizionale. Doctor Pediatrica 2:42-6

Gonzalez C.A. (2006), Nutrition and cancer: the current epidemiological evidence, "Br J Nutr", 96(1 Suppl):S42-45.

Guxens M, Mendez MA, Garcia-Esteban R; Forns J, Julvez J, Lopez-Sabater MC, Espada M, Vrijheid M, Sunyer J (2009). Long-Term Breastfeeding and Neurodevelopment at 14 Months: Which Factors Could Explain This Relationship? Epidemiology: Volume 20 - Issue 6 - p S205 (accesso 27.04.2014).

Hallberg L (1981). Bioavailability of dietary iron in man, Annu Rev Nutr 1:123-47.

Haug A, Jensen A. (1954). Seasonal variations of the chemical composition of Alaria esculenta, Laminaria saccharina, Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria digitata from Northern Norway. Reports of the Norwegian Institute of Seaweed Research No. 4.

Haug A., Jensen A. (1954), Seasonal variations of the chemical composition of Alaria esculenta, Laminaria saccharina, Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria digitata from Northern Norway, "Reports of the Norwegian Institute of Seaweed Research No. 4".

Healthcanada (2007), Canada's Food Guide (

Heaney RP (2006). Absorbability and utility of calcium in mineral waters. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Aug;84(2):371-4.

Hergenrather J, Hlady G, Wallace B, Savage (1981). Pollutants in breast milk of vegetarians. N Engl J Med. 304(13):792.

Herrmann W, Geisel J (2002). Vegetarian lifestyle and monitoring of vitamin B-12 status. Clin Chim Acta. 326(1-2):47-59.

Herrmann W, Obeid R (2011). Vitamins in the prevention of human diseases. De Gruyter ed, Berlin/New York.

Herrmann W. e Geisel J. (2002), Vegetarian lifestyle and monitoring of vitamin B-12 status, "Clin Chim Acta", 326(1-2):47-59.

Herrmann W., Obeid R., Schorr H. e Geisel J. (2005), The usefulness of holotranscobalamin in predicting vitamin B12 status in different clinical settings, "Current Drug Metabolism", 6:47-53.

Herrmann W., Obeid R., Schorr H., Hubner U., Geisel J., Sand-Hill M., Ali N. ed Herrmann M. (2009), Enhanced bone metabolism in vegetarians--the role of vitamin B12 deficiency, "Clin Chem Lab Med", 47[11],1.381-1.387.

Herrmann W., Schorr H., Purschwitz K., Rassoul F., Richter V. (2001), Total homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and total antioxidant status in vegetarians, "Clin Chem", 47(6):1094-1101.

Horvath A, Koletzko B, Szajewska H (2007). Effect of supplementation of women in high-risk pregnancies with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 98(2):253-9.

HSPH, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, The Nutrition Source (

Hua N.W., Stoohs R.A. e Facchini F.S. (2001), Low iron status and enhanced insulin sensitivity in lacto-ovo vegetarians, "Br J Nutr", 86(4):515-519.

Huang T., Yang B., Zheng J., Li G., Wahlqvist M.L. e Li D. (2012), Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: A meta-analysis and systematic review, "Ann Nutr Metab", 60(4):233-240.

Hung C.J., Huang P.C., Li Y.H., Lu S.C., Ho L.T., Chou H.F. (2006), Taiwanese vegetarians have higher insulin sensitivity than omnivores, "Br J Nutr", 95(1):129-135.

IBFAN information Sheet 2005. Breastfeeding and brain development, (accesso 27.04).

IEO. Istituto Europeo di Oncologia. Banca Dati di Composizione degli Alimenti per Studi Epidemiologici in Italia. ( il 27.04.2015).

INRAN (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione) (2003), Linee Guida per una sana alimentazione (revisione 2003) (

INRAN (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione) (2000), Tabelle di Composizione degli Alimenti, aggiornamento 2000, ©INRAN 2000, edra (

IOM. National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Macronutrients DRI table for carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids and protein.; Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Vitamins. (accesso 27.04.2014).

ISS (2011), Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Gravidanza Fisiologica, aggiornamento 2011 (

Jans LA, Giltay EJ, Van der Does AJ (2010). The efficacy of n-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA (fish oil) for perinatal depression. Br J Nutr. 104(11):1577-85.

Jensen CL, Maude M, Anderson RE, Heird WC (2000). Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of lactating women on the fatty acid composition of breast milk lipids and maternal and infant plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr.;71(1 Suppl):292S-9S.

JFST, Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (

Kahleova H., Matoulek M., Malinska H., Oliyarnik O., Kazdova L., Neskudla T., Skoch A., Hajek M., Hill M., Kahle M. e Pelikanova T. (2011), Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes, "Diabet Med", 28(5):549-559.

Key T.J., Appleby P.N., Crowe F.L., Bradbury K.E., Schmidt J.A. e Travis R.C. (2014), Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4,998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8,612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2,246 vegans, "Am J Clin Nutr", 100 Suppl 1:378S-385S.

Key T.J., Appleby P.N., Spencer E.A., Travis R.C., Allen N.E., Thorogood M. e Mann J.I. (2009), Cancer incidence in British vegetarians, "British Journal of Cancer", 101:192-197.

Key T.J., Appleby P.N., Spencer E.A., Travis R.C., Roddam A.W. e Allen N.E. (2009), Mortality in British vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (epic-Oxford), "Am J Clin Nutr", 89(Suppl):1.620S-1.626S.

Key T.J., Fraser G.E., Thorogood M., Appleby P.N., Beral V., Reeves G., Burr M.L., Chang-Claude J., Frentzel-Beyme R., Kuzma J.W., Mann J. e McPherson K. (1999), Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies, "Am J Clin Nutr", 70(3 Suppl):516S-524S.

Key T.J., Schatzkin A., Willett W.C., Allen N.E., Spencer E.A. e Travis R.C. (2004), Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer, "Public Health Nutr", 7(1A):187-200.

Kleinman R (2004)(ed). Pediatric Nutrition Handbook. American Academy of Pediatrics, 5th ed, USA, 2004.

Koebnick C, Hoffmann I, Dagnelie PC, Heins UA, Wickramasinghe SN, Ratnayaka ID, et al (2004). Longterm ovo-lacto vegetarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women. J Nutr. 134:3319–26.

Krivosikova Z., Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M., Spustova V., Stefikova K., Valachovicova M., Blazicek P. e Nemcova T. (2010), The association between high plasma homocysteine levels and lower bone mineral density in Slovak women: the impact of vegetarian diet, "Eur J Nutr", 49[3], 147-153.

Kushi L.H., Byers T., Doyle C., Bandera E.V., McCullough M., McTiernan A., Gansler T., Andrews K.S. e Thun M.J, American Cancer Society 2006, Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee (2006), American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity, "ca Cancer J Clin", 56:254-281. Erratum in (2007): " ca Cancer J Clin", 57(1):66. NcTiernan Anne [added]. Summary for patients in: " ca Cancer J Clin", 56(5):310-312.

Kwok T.K., Woo J., Ho S., Sham A. (2000), Vegetarianism and ischemic heart disease in older Chinese women, "J Am Coll Nutr", 19(5):622-627.

Lanou A.J., Berkow S.E. e Barnard N.D. (2005), Calcium, dairy products, and bone health in children and young adults: a reevaluation of the evidence, "Pediatrics", 115(3):736-743.

Larsson CL, Johansson GK (2002). Dietary intake and nutritional status of young vegans and omnivores in Sweden. Am J Clin Nutr 76(1):100-6.

Lasekan JB, Jacobs J, Reisinger KS, Montalto MB, Frantz MP, Blatter MM (2011). Lactose-free milk protein-based infant formula: impact on growth and gastrointestinal tolerance in infants. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 50(4):330-7.

LLU (2008), Loma Linda University, School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition, The Vegetarian Food Pyramid (

Maglietta V (2004). Diagnosi e terapia pediatrica pratica. Casa editrice ambrosiana, Milano 2004.

Makrides M, Collins CT, Gibson RA (2011). Impact of fatty acid status on growth and neurobehavioural development in humans. Matern Child Nutr. 7 Suppl 2:80-8.

Makrides M, Gibson RA, McPhee AJ, Yelland L, Quinlivan J, Ryan P (2010); DOMInO Investigative Team. Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 304(15):1675-83.

Mangels AR, Messina V (2001). Considerations in planning vegan diets: infants. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Jun;101(6):670-7.

Mangels R., Messina V., Messina M. (2011), The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury (ma), 3rd ed.

Mathey C, Di Marco JN, Poujol A, Cournelle MA, Brevaut V, Livet MO, Chabrol B, Michel G (2007). [Failure to thrive and psychomotor regression revealing vitamin B12 deficiency in 3 infants] Arch Pediatr. 14(5):467-71.

Mayo Clinic (Nelson, JK; Moxness, KE; Jensen, MD; Gastineau, CF)(1999). Dietologia. Il manuale della Mayo Clinic. Alimentazione normale e terapie dietetiche per neonati, bambini e adolescenti, VII Ed, Centro Scientifico Editore, Torino, 1999.

Mc Clendon J.F. (1933), Iodine and goiter with especial reference to the far east, "The Journal of Biological Chemistry", 102(1):91-92.

Melina V, Craig W, Levin S. (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 116(12):1970-1980. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2016.09.025.

Merritt RJ, Jenks BH (2004). Safety of soy-based infant formulas containing isoflavones: the clinical evidence. J Nutr. 134(5):1220S-1224S.

Messina V, Mangels AR (2001). Considerations in planning vegan diets: children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Jun;101(6):661-9.

Messina V., Melina V. e Mangels A.R. (2003), Una nuova Guida Alimentare per Vegetariani Nordamericani, "Can J Diet Prac Res", 64:82-86. Traduzione italiana pubblicata on-line, ©ssnv 2004 (

Messina, V; Mangels, R; Messina, M (2004). The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA, 2nd ed.

Ministero della Salute (2003), Piano Sanitario Nazionale 2003-2005 (

Mishra S., Xu J., Agarwal U., Gonzales J., Levin S. e Barnard N.D. (2013), A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: the geico study, "Eur J Clin Nutr", 67(7):718-724.

Monsen, ER (1988). Iron nutrition and absorption: Dietary factors which impact iron bioavailability. Journal of The American Dietetic Association. 88: 786-790.

Nakamoto K., Arashi M., Noparatanawong S., Kamohara S., Radak T., Tuchida M., Miyazaki K., Watanabe S., Kudo H. e Tanaka A (2009), A new Japanese vegetarian food guide, "Asia Pac J Public Health", 21(2):160-169.

Napoli JE, Brand-Miller JC, Conway P (2003). Bifidogenic effects of feeding infant formula containing galacto-oligosaccharides in healthy formula-fed infants. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 12(Suppl):S60.

Norris J. (2013), Vitamin B12. How Recommendations Were Formulated (, last update August 2013).

Nutritiondata. Food and Nutrient DataBase. (accesso 27.04.2014).

O'Connell JM, Dibley MJ, Sierra J, Wallace B, Marks JS, Yip R (1989). Growth of vegetarian children: The Farm Study. Pediatrics. 84(3):475-81.

Otsuka S. (1998) Umami in Japan, Korea and Southast Asia. Food reviews international. 14 (2&3) 247-256; in References, UMAMI.IT, (accesso 16.12.2011).

PCRM, Physician Committee for Responsible Medicine, The Power Plate (;

Perry CL, McGuire MT, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M (2002). Adolescent vegetarians: how well do their dietary patterns meet the healthy people 2010 objectives? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 156(5):431-7.

Pettersen B.J., Anousheh R., Fan J., Jaceldo-Siegl K. e Fraser G.E. (2012), Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (ahs-2), "Public Health Nutr", 15(10):1.909-1.916.

Piacentini G, Peroni D, Bessi E, Morelli L (2010). Molecular characterization of intestinal microbiota in infants fed with soymilk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 51(1):71-6.

Popkin B.M., Armstrong L.E., Bray G.M., Caballero B., Frei B. e Willett W.C. (2006), A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States, "Am J Clin Nutr", 83:529-542 ( Sintesi ragionata su

Rizzo N.S., Sabaté J., Jaceldo-Siegl K. e Fraser G.E. (2011), Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome: the Adventist Health Study 2, "Diabetes Care", 34(5):1.225-1.227.

Rosell M., Appleby P., Spencer E. e Key T. (2006), Weight gain over 5 years in 21,966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in epic-Oxford, "Int J Obes" (Lond), 30(9):1.389-1.396.

Ryan L. e Symington A.M. (2014), Algal-oil supplements are a viable alternative to fish-oil supplements in terms of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; dha), "Journal of Functional Foods", Available on-line 3 July 2014 doi:10.1016/j.jff.2014.06.023.

S.I.A.N Veneto. Linee guida in materia di miglioramento della qualità nutrizionale nella ristorazione scolastica. Ottobre 2008

Sabaté J. (2001), Vegetarian Nutrition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001.

Sabaté J. (2003), The contribution of vegetarian diets to human health, Forum Nutr, 56:218-220 (

Sacks F.M., Castelli W.P., Donner A. e Kass E.H. (1975), Plasma lipids and lipoproteins in vegetarians and controls, "N Engl J Med", 292(22):1.148-1.151.

Sanders TA (1988). Growth and development of British vegan children. Am J Clin Nutr. 48(3 Suppl):822-5.

Schulzke SM, Patole SK, Simmer K (2011). Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2):CD000375.

Setchell KD, Zimmer-Nechemias L, Cai J, Heubi JE (1997). Exposure of infants to phyto-oestrogens from soy-based infant formula. Lancet. 350(9070):23-7.

SINU (2014), Società Italiana Di Nutrizione Umana, LARN. Livelli di Assunzione di Riferimento di Nutrienti ed energia. IV revisione, SICS Ed., Milano 2014.

Slavin JL (2005). Dietary fiber and body weight. Nutrition. 21:411-418.

Spencer E.A., Appleby P.N., Davey G.K. e Key T.J. (2003), Diet and body mass index in 38000 epic-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans, "Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord", 27(6):728-734.

SSNV (2005), Società Scientifica di Nutrizione Vegetariana, VegPyramid, la piramide alimentare naturale (

Strohle A., Maike W. e Hahn A. (2007), [Nutrition and colorectal cancer], "Med Monatsschr Pharm", 30(1):25-32.

Strohle A., Waldmann A., Wolters M. e Hahn A. (2006), [Vegetarian nutrition: Preventive potential and possible risks] Part 1: Plant foods, "Wien Klin Wochenschr" 118(19-20):580-593; Part 2: animal foods and recommendations, "Wien Klin Wochenschr", 118(23-24):728-737.

Szeto Y.T., Kwok T.C. e Benzie I.F. (2004), Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk, "Nutrition", 20(10):863-866.

Tanner LA (1962), Grafici della crescita dei vari tessuti, in (accesso 10.10.2011)

Tantamango-Bartley Y., Jaceldo-Siegl K., Fan J. e Fraser G. (2013), Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population, "Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev", 22(2):286-294.

Teas J., Pino S., Critchley A., Braverman L.E. (2004). Variability of iodine content in common commercially available edible seaweeds. Thyroid, 14(10): 836-841.

Teucher B, Olivares M, Cori H (2004). Enhancers of iron absorption: ascorbic acid and other organic acids. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 74(6):403-19.

Thorogood M., Carter R., Benfield L., McPherson K. e Mann J.I. (1987), Plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in people with different diets in Britain, "Br Med J" (Clin Res Ed), 295(6.594):351-353.

Tonstad S., Butler T., Yan R. e Fraser G.E. (2009), Type of vegetarian diet, body weight and prevalence of type 2 diabetes, "Diabetes Care", 32:791-796.

Tonstad S., Stewart K., Oda K., Batech M., Herring R.P. e Fraser G.E. (2013), Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2, "Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis", 23(4):292-299.

Turk D (2007). Soy protein for infant feeding: what do we know? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 10(3):360-5.

Turner-McGrievy G.M., Barnard N.D. e Scialli A.R. (2007), A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet, "Obesity", 15(9):2276-2281.

Uauy R, Mize C, Castillo C (2000). Fat intake during childhood: metabolic responses and effects on growth. Am. J. Clin Nutr. 72 (S) 1354S-60S.

UNEP (2010), United Nations Environment Programme, Assessing the environmental impacts of consumption and production, Copyright ©United Nations Environment Programme, 2010 (

UNICEF (2002), Facts for Life, NY, 3rd edition, 2002, p 39

USDA (2005), US Department of Agricolture and Department of Health and Human Services, Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (

USDA (2010), US Department of Agricolture and Department of Health and Human Services, Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (;;

USDA. Nutrient DataBase. (accesso 27.04.2014)

Van Dusen A (2008). Five things new parents need to know. Forbes. (accesso 10.10.2011)

Van Dusseldorp M, Arts IC, Bergsma JS, De Jong N, Dagnelie PC, Van Staveren WA (1996). Catch-up growth in children fed a macrobiotic diet in early childhood. J Nutr. 126(12):2977-83.

Varma SN, Schwarz V, Simpson IM (1962). The role of dietary lactose in the synthesis of brain galactolipids. Biochem J. 85:546-9.

Vincent (1924) in Vinogradov A.P. (1953), The elementary chemical composition of marine organisms. Memoir # 2, Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Yale Univ., New Haven (Connecticut).

Wagner CL, Greer FR (2008). American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 122(5):1142-52.

Warri A, Saarinen NM, Makela S, Hilakivi-Clarke L (2008). The role of early life genistein exposures in modifying breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 98(9):1485-93.

Watanabe F. (2007), Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability, "Exp Biol Med (Maywood)", 232(10):1.266-1.274.

WCRF/AICR (2007), Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective (

Weber C.L. e Matthews H.S. (2008), Food-Miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States, "Environ Sci Technol", 42 (10), 3.508-3.513 (

WHO (1985), Energy and Protein Requirements, Report of a Joint fao/who/unu Meeting, Technical Report Series n. 724, who,Geneva.

WHO (1998). Family and reproductive health, Division of Child Health and Development, Evidence for the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. (accesso 27.04.2014).

WHO (2001), PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION, Guiding principles for complementary feeding of breastfed child. (accesso 27.04.2014).

WHO (2007). FAQ.; The WHO Child Growth Standards; WHO Reference 2007 for boys and girls, 5-19 years, (accesso 10.10.2011).

Willett W.C. (1995), Diet, nutrition, and avoidable cancer, "Environ Health Perspect", 103 (8 Suppl):165-170.

Wolfram T. e Ismail-Beigi F. (2011), Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, "Endocr Pract", 17(1):132-142.

Wolpert H.A., Atakov-Castillo A., Smith S.A. e Steil G.M. (2013), Dietary Fat Acutely Increases Glucose Concentrations and Insulin Requirements in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: Implications for carbohydrate-based bolus dose calculation and intensive diabetes management, "Diabetes Care", 36(4):810-816.

Yokoyama Y., Nishimura K., Barnard N.D., Takegami M., Watanabe M., Sekikawa A., Okamura T. e Miyamoto Y. (2014), Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a meta-analysis, "jama Intern Med", 174(4):577-587.

Young E.G. (1948), Chemistry of seaweed extracts and their uses, Conf. Utilization of Seaweeds, Halifax, 1948, National Research Council of Canada.

Young E.G. e Langille W.M. (1958), The occurrence of inorganic elements in marine algae of the Atlantic provinces of Canada, "Canad J Bot", 36: 301-310.

Young VR, Bier DM & Pellet PL (1989) A theoretical basis for increasing current estimates of the amino acids requirements in adult man with experimental support. Am. J. Clin..Nutr., 50: 80-92.

Ziegler EE (2011). Consumption of cow's milk as a cause of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers. Nutr Rev. 69 Suppl 1:S37-42.